Intro - Nmap ("Network Mapper") is an open source tool for network exploration and security auditing. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, although it works fine against single hosts. It uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. While Network Mapper is commonly used for security audits, many systems and network administrators find it useful for routine tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime.


1. How to open nmap

A. GUI method
Application → Kali Linux → Information gathering → DNS Analysis → nmap



B. open terminal type nmap hit enter



2. Scan a single IP address When firewall OFF/ON on target PC

Syntax – nmap IP address/hostname

EX – nmap

Ex-  nmap google.com

nmap console


3. Boost up Your nmap Scan – using this command u can decrease scan time

Syntax – nmap –F IP address

Ex – nmap –F google.com



4. Scan multiple IP address or subnet

A. scan a range of IP address

Syntax – nmap IP address range

EX- nmap

nmap scan range


B.  Scan a range of IP address using a wildcard

Ex – nmap 192.168.75.*


C. Scan an entire subnet

Ex – nmap


5. scan turn on OS and version detection

Ex – nmap –O


6.  Scan all TCP port in target IP

Ex – nmap –sT


7. Scan a firewall for security weakness

A. Null scan - TCP Null Scan to fool a firewall to generate a response

Ex – nmap –sN


B. Fin scan - TCP Fin scan to check firewall

Ex – nmap –sF


C. TCP Xmas scan to check firewall

Ex – nmap –sX


8. UDP Scan - Scan a host for UDP services. This scan is used to view open UDP port.

Ex – nmap –sU


9. Scan for IP protocol - This type of scan allows you to determine which IP protocols (TCP, ICMP, IGMP, etc.) are supported by target machines.

Ex – nmap –sO


10. detect remote services (server / daemon) version numbers

Ex – nmap –sV


11. Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP SYN Scan

A. Stealthy scan

Ex – nmap –sS


B. Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using  TCP connect scan

Ex – nmap –sT


C.  Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP ACK scan

 Ex – nmap –sA


D. Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP Window scan

Ex – nmap –sW


E. Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP Maimon scan

Ex – nmap – sM


12. List Scan – this command is used tolist target to scan

Ex – nmap –sL


13. Host Discovery or Ping Scan - Scan a network and find out which servers and devices are up and running

Ex – nmap –sP


14. Scan a host when protected by the firewall

Ex – nmap –PN

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